The well-established science of linguistics analyzes all aspects of human language. Linguistics has many subfields, including the study of language structure, sound patterns, the dynamics of language in interpersonal and intergroup communication, and the interplay of meaning, grammar, and context. In academic departments it is often paired with other neighboring disciplines such as cognitive science.
The branch of linguistics known as “forensic linguistics” applies the science of linguistic investigation to issues of the law. Forensic linguistics augments legal analysis by applying rigorous, scientifically accepted principles of language analysis to legal evidence such as e-mails, text messages, contracts, letters, confessions, and recorded speech.